The University of Michigan Division of Public Safety and Security (DPSS) is committed to transparency. Below you will find facts and statistics about our work. This page will be expanded in the future to include additional statistics, data, and demographics. We are also working with subject-matter experts to better collect, analyze, contextualize, and present data to ultimately improve communication, information-sharing, and transparency.
DPSS is composed of nine departments and units. DPSS currently employs just over 300 employees who work on the Ann Arbor campus.
Calls for Service (CFS)
On average, DPSS responds to more than 120,000 CFS per year, which is more than 300 CFS per day on average.
Calls for Service (CFS) are documented records of officer activity (security or police), when the officer is dispatched to or self-initiates a response. CFS can be initiated by a community member, an officer, or a response to an alarm. The record is entered into the DPSS Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) system and can include:
Administrative activities related to life-safety systems are also logged in CAD, such as alarm system checks, maintenance requests, and severe weather alerts to name a few.
DPSS responded to nearly 500,000 calls for service over a four-year period – 2017-2020
- Service (148,120) represents 30% of the overall calls for service and includes various categories, such as lost and found, patient property, student escorts, community outreach, etc.
- Patrol (112,700) represents 23% of the calls for service and includes activities such as property checks, directed patrol, foot patrol, etc.
- Alarms (101,656) represent 20% of calls for service and include unlocks, service, and fire alarms.
- Medical (70,103) represents 14% of the calls for service and includes responses to the emergency department, medical escorts, medical assistance, etc.
- Criminal (22,849)represents 5% of the calls for service and includes areas such as violations of the controlled substance act, larcenies, potentially violent people, etc.
- Traffic (27,301) represents 5% of the overall calls for service and includes traffic stops, motorists assists, parking enforcements, etc.
- Other (13,038) Represents 3% of the calls for service and includes areas such as vehicle maintenance, assistance to other agencies, and system function checks.
*We recognize the Advancing Public Safety Task Force
also requested demographic data associated with the
individuals reporting to DPSS,
and we are exploring the feasibility of collecting this information.
An arrest is defined as stopping a person and restraining their movement and detaining them with valid legal authority. However, many arrests may also occur without physical detainment. These non-custodial arrests include when officers issue an appearance citation for certain minor misdemeanors instead of making a physical arrest. Non-custodial arrests also include when an arrest warrant is issued following an investigation and the court issues an appearance notice. During the person’s court appearance, the court will direct the individual to appear at UMPD to complete fingerprinting, photographing, and administrative procedures necessary to satisfy data reporting requirements. Arrests made by other police agencies on warrants resulting from UMPD cases are also included among the arrest totals.
Criminal offenses fall into one of three categories: Crimes against persons, crimes against property, and public order crimes.
DPSS arrested 1,853 individuals over a four-year period – 2017-2020
- Crimes Against Persons (226) - Crimes against persons involve an element of assault or act of violence against an individual. These accounted for 12% of the individuals arrested over the four year period and included crimes such as murder, assault, robbery, criminal sexual conduct, domestic violence, etc.
- Property Crimes (168) - Property crimes accounted for 9% of the individuals arrested over the four-year period and included crimes such as arson, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, etc.
- Public Order Crimes (936) - Public order crimes accounted for 50% of the individuals arrested over the four-year period and included crimes such as operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated, weapons offenses, drug offenses, liquor law violations, etc.
- Bench Warrant Arrests (523) - Bench warrant arrests are those made after one already charged with a crime fails to appear in court and the presiding judge has issued an arrest warrant from the bench. These accounted for 28% of the individuals arrested.
From 2017 to 2020, UMPD issued 2,580 traffic citations. Citations may be for non-criminal civil infractions and misdemeanors, which are criminal in nature and punishable by no more than 90 days in jail.
- Misdemeanor - These are also counted among arrest numbers. They are treated as court summons in lieu of warrant authorization and may only be used for minor misdemeanors (90 days or less) for offenses as approved by the Washtenaw County Prosecutor
Civil Infraction - Court appearance
notice for non-criminal violation of law observed by
a peace officer
- Hazardous - These are offenses directly endangering public safety such as speeding, reckless/careless driving, failing to yield right-of-way, texting/distracted driving, disobeying a traffic sign or signal, etc.
- Non-Hazardous - These are violations that are more regulatory in nature, such as licensing and registration violations, proof of insurance, failure to wear a safety belt, etc.
- Defective equipment - These violations are for operating with defective or improper equipment such as a cracked windshield, inoperative headlights, unlawful window tint, etc. These violations allow for the cited individual to repair the violation, have the repair verified by any police officer, and return the citation to the court. Done within the time frame allowed - normally 10 days - all fines and costs are waived.
Officers are trained to be consistent and unbiased in their application of enforcement, default to voluntary compliance/warning when warranted and enforce based on benefit to public safety.
*While we recognize the Advancing Public Safety Task Force also requested demographic data associated with the individuals cited, we remain committed to identifying best practices for collecting, contextualizing, incorporating, and displaying that data.
The University Police Department enforces traffic laws to prevent traffic-related deaths, injuries, property losses, and facilitate the efficient and orderly movement of traffic. While education and voluntary compliance are the preferred methods of achieving these ends, enforcement action is sometimes necessary. While vehicular traffic speeds are relatively low through most of the campus footprint, the density of mixed vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic is high.
DPSS conducted 10,964 traffic stops over a four-year period – 2017-2020.
- Verbal Warning (8,606) - 78.5% of traffic stops initiated by DPSS officers resulted in a verbal warning to a driver or the occupant(s) of a vehicle.
- Citation Issued/Arrest (2,358) - 21.5% of traffic stops initiated by DPSS officers resulted in a citation being issued or an arrest being made involving the driver or occupant(s) of a vehicle.
Traffic Stop Types
- Officer observes moving/hazardous violation
- Officer observes regulatory violations such as no or expired license plate
- Officer observes vehicle operating with defective equipment
- Officer spots vehicle wanted for involvement in a crime
- Officer spots vehicle being driven in a way that raises suspicion
*As a result of the Advancing Public Safety Task Force
recommendations, we began collecting the demographics
of the individuals stopped starting June 2021.
We are identifying best practices for contextualizing, incorporating, and displaying that data
New Data Since June 2021
In June 2021, at the recommendation of the APS Task Force, DPSS began collecting demographic data on all self-initiated police contacts. These numbers were collected manually. We are working with our 21CP consultants to expand public access to our data. Subject matter experts will assist DPSS to better collect, analyze, contextualize, and present our data to ultimately improve communication, information-sharing, and transparency. We look forward to presenting this data in future dashboard updates.
Below, you will find a breakdown of all DPSS calls for service from June - Nov. 2021, including dispatched vs. self initiated activity; criminal and hazardous interventions; and citation versus no citation. Upon initial review, this data is reflective of our commitment to creating a safe and secure campus community and in alignment with our top priority of preventing harm.
Calls for Service
From June 7, 2021 to November 30, 2021, the DPSS Dispatch Services received 61,666 requests for service.
Calls for Service
Of those 61,666 calls for service, approximately 18% (11,406) resulted in a police response.
Dispatched Versus Self-Initiated Activity
Of the 11,406 that involved a police response, only 6.6% (750) were self-initiated enforcement contacts, meaning a police officer saw an issue and responded rather than being contacted by someone else to respond.
Criminal & Hazardous Intervention
Of the 916 criminal and hazardous interventions, 62% (568) were hazardous interventions and 38% (348) involved criminal interventions.
Criminal includes aggravated assault, arson, burglary, homicide, larceny, motor vehicle theft, robbery, and sexual assault.
Hazardous intervention includes red light violations, high rates of speed, stop sign violations, careless driving, high intoxication, disorderly conduct.
Citation Versus No Citation
Of those 568 hazardous interventions, 84% (475) resulted in a verbal warning, meaning no citation was issued, and 16% (93) resulted in a citation or arrest.
*This data was collected manually, leveraging best available resources to date. As we work toward better automation, we will continue to work with our subject matter experts to identify best practices and to further refine, analyze and articulate the data.